Observation is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching, listening, reading, touching, and recording behavior and characteristics of living beings, objects, or phenomena. The researchers, adopting this method, attempt to understand behavior and societies by getting to know the persons involved and their values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and emotions.

The technique qualifies as a scientific method of data collection when it is specially designed to answer a research question and is systematically planned and executed with proper controls. The versatility of the method makes it an indispensable primary source of data and a supplement to other methods. Advantages of the Observation Method Directness The main advantage of observation is its directness.

We can collect data at the time they occur. The observer does not have to ask people about their behavior and reports from others. He or she can simply watch as individuals act and speak. While the survey respondents may have a hazy or lapse memory about events that occurred in the distant past, the observer is studying events as they occur. Natural environment Whereas other data collection techniques introduce artificiality into the research environment, data collected in an observation study describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings.

Observation is neither as restrictive nor as artificial as either the survey or the experiment. Longitudinal analysis Since the observation is possible to be conducted in a natural setting, the observer can conduct his or her study over a much longer period than with either the survey or experiment.

Some studies focus on individuals who are unable to give verbal reports or to articulate themselves meaningfully. For these subjects, the observational method is indispensable. These include children, crippled, and mentally and physically handicraft people. Disadvantages of the Observation Method Lack of control Despite the advantage as achieved from the natural environment, the observation study, however, has little control over extraneous variables that may affect the data.

The presence of a stranger the observer and the error involved in human observation and the recording of data, which may remain out of control of the observer, are likely to bias the observations to a great extent.

Smallness in sample size Because observational studies are generally conducted in-depth, with data that are often subjective and difficult to quantify, the sample size is usually kept at a minimum.

Also, the in-depth nature of the observation studies generally requires that they are conducted over an extended period, then the survey method or experiments. This feature tends to limit the size of the sample. No opportunity to learn past In an observational study, there is no way to know the past. It is also difficult to gather information on such topics as intentions, opinions, attitudes, or preferences.

This technique can generate either quantitative or qualitative data but tends to be used more for small-scale exploratory studies than for large-scale quantitative studies. This is because it usually requires Relatively highly skilled observers and analysts Prolonged periods of observation High cost per unit of observation.

Techniques of Observation This technique lends itself particularly well to the observation of community responses to program efforts. It is the chief method of ethnographers, who specialize in community studies. It is also useful for organizational studies such as observation of clinic operations, activities of field-workers, and administrative procedures.

When an observation study is conducted with the first two approaches, we call it a non-participant observation study. The third approach leads to a study which we refer to as participant observation study.Looking for a Childcare Documentation App? Click here to Check out Appsessment! Created by Aussie Childcare Network. When observing children, it's important that we use a range of different observation methods from running records, learning stories to photographs and work samples. Using a variety of different observation methods can assist you in observing a child's interest, skills, abilities, and needs.

It provides a foundation for a child's individual assessment and planning. Collecting a series of observations before interpreting and planning will provide a well rounded and holistic picture of the child.

methods and techniques for the earth observation

This observation is usually recorded after the event has occurred and written in past tense. It should focus on what is significant and recorded in sequential order to focus on important details. It may focus on a single area of development or cover a number of developmental areas at once.

When observing using an anecdotal method, record what the child had said and done, body language, direct quotes, body language, facial expressions and tone of voice. Anecdotal records are a useful method for recording significant events or actions that tells us something about the child's development, interests, skills, abilities and needs. Christopher played with the drama materials for 15 minutes, using the dress-ups and examining himself in the mirror.

He walked over to the home corner table and said to another boy, 'Hey give me that. I spoke to Christopher and asked him to give the spoon back to the other student. He gave the spoon back and said, 'I like choc milk and a biscuit too! Another adult approached Christopher asking him to help pack away. Christopher replied to the adult, 'And then can we go outside?

A running record tells a story of the child's behaviour by detailing everything a child says during a set period of time. They are written in present tense since you are recording as it happens. Running records provide a more detailed account of a child's behaviour in particular situations. They are useful in determining why a child is behaving in a particular way and usually provide in depth information on a range of developmental areas.

With running records it is often a good ideas to record during a specific time 2 to 5 minutes or observe during time increments. Good job! Maya transfers the wet cloth to her right hand, then, as the bib is lifted up and over her head, grabs it with both hands again. She wipes the cloth across her cheek and mouth, then vigorously swipes at her tongue four times. A Learning Story is just that, a story that tells a tale to those who are reading it. It should focus on a child or a group of children, about the decisions they make and the consequences that follow.

With detail descriptions like in a narrative, a Learning Story provides an informative approach of the experience and the events that occurred. As I was setting up Kelly stood watching me. Kelly walked over to the easel.

I asked Kelly what she will be painting.

Earth observation methods

She confidently drew a circle on the piece of paper using blue paint. Smiling, on top of the blue circle Kelly painted a red circle. She mixed both the blue and red together.DTU Space has competencies in systems, methods and their application in connection with Earth observation. This means that methods and techniques are developed using in-depth knowledge of the system and its requirements. One of the focus areas for DTU Space and for Danish tele-measuring activities in general, is monitoring the crysosphere, especially in and around Greenland.

The monitoring of the cryosphere is extremely important in order to gain a deeper understanding of climate change and its future repercussions for mankind. The purpose of such research is to develop more precise and reliable methods for determining the speed field. An interesting new technique in this connection is polarimetric interferometry, which DTU Space has used to gather airborne SAR data from the ice cap to more accurately map the ice surface. This technique can result in a better characterisation of the ice and of how far the radar signal penetrates the ice.

The degree of penetration is vital when using radar to determine the surface height and changes to this, as it is otherwise impossible to distinguish between actual changes and changes in penetration depth. DTU Space is involved in developing methods for monitoring sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for use in both navigation and climate models.

The Institute has developed a unique data processing web system for use in research projects and by operational users. DTU Space develops methods for processing and interpreting polarimetric SAR data, in particular methods for detecting and mapping changes. This research has made it clear that it is necessary to have a better understanding of the dispersion conditions of different objects in order to develop precise and reliable methods.

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Forside Research Instrumentation and Technology Earth observation methods. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share on Linkedin.

Divisions at DTU Space. Universe and Solar system. Earth - physics and geodesy. Climate and Environment. Instrumentation and Technology. Carbon fibre. Earth observation methods. Radar systems. Radiometer systems. X-ray Detectors. X-Ray Optics. Stellar navigation.

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Earth observation methods DTU Space has competencies in systems, methods and their application in connection with Earth observation. Updated by Morten Garly Andersen on 29 May Responsible editor: Morten Garly Andersen.Observation is probably the most common and the simplest method of data collection. It does not require much technical knowledge.

Although scientific controlled observation requires some technical skill of the researcher, still it is easier than other methods. Everybody in this world observes many things in their daily life.

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A little training can make a person perfect, to observe his surroundings. Observation is one of the main bases of formulating hypothesis. By observing a phenomenon continuously, the researcher may get well acquainted with the observed. He came to know about their habits, likes, dislikes, problems, perception, different activities and so many other things.

All these help him a lot to form a hypothesis on them. Any researcher, therefore, has to be a good observer. In other methods like interview, questionnaire etc.

So these are indirect methods and here the investigator does not have any means to examine the accuracy of the data supplied by them. But in observation the observer can directly check the accuracy from the observed.

He can apply various devices to test the reliability of their behaviour.

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So very often the data collected through observation is more reliable than these collected through interview or questionnaire. Observation is a common method used in all sciences, whether physical or social.

So it has greater universality of practice. As a common method, it is very easily followed and accepted. Observation can deal with phenomena which are not capable of giving verbal information about their behaviour, feeling and activities simply for the reason that they cannot speak e.

Observation is indispensable for studies on infants who can neither understand the quarries of the researcher nor express themselves clearly. In the case of animals observation is the only way out. For deaf and dumb persons, for serious cases of abnormality or mad persons, for non-cooperative persons, for too shy persons and for persons who do not understand the language of researcher, observation will be the only appropriate tool.

Observation does not require the willingness of the people to provide various information about them.

methods and techniques for the earth observation

Often some respondents do not like to speak about themselves to an outsider. Some people do not have time or required skill to provide important information to the researcher.

Earth observation

Although observation cannot always overcome such problems, still relatively speaking it requires less active co-operation and willingness of respondents. Observation is ever possible without the knowledge of the respondents. There are many personal behaviours or secret activities which are not open for observation. For example, no couple will allow the researcher to observe their sexual activities. In most of the cases people do not allow the outsider to study their activities.

Such problems arise because of the uncertainty of the event. Many social events are very much uncertain in nature.

Satellite Earth Observation for Agricultural Monitoring

It is a difficult task on the part of the researcher to determine their time and place. The event may take place in the absence of the observer.Observation, as the name implies, is a way of collecting data through observing. Observation as a data collection method can be structured or unstructured. In structured or systematic observation, data collection is conducted using specific variables and according to a pre-defined schedule. Unstructured observation, on the other hand, is conducted in an open and free manner in a sense that there would be no pre-determined variables or objectives.

Advantages of observation data collection method include direct access to research phenomena, high levels of flexibility in terms of application and generating a permanent record of phenomena to be referred to later. At the same time, observation method is disadvantaged with longer time requirements, high levels of observer bias, and impact of observer on primary data, in a way that presence of observer may influence the behaviour of sample group elements.

It is important to note that observation data collection method may be associated with certain ethical issues. Fully informed consent of research participant s is one of the basic ethical considerations to be adhered to by researchers. At the same time, the behaviour of sample group members may change with negative implications on the level of research validity if they are notified about the presence of the observer. This delicate matter needs to be addressed by consulting with dissertation supervisor, and commencing observation primary data collection process only after ethical aspects of the issue have been approved by the supervisor.

The e-book covers all stages of writing a dissertation starting from the selection to the research area to submitting the completed version of the work within the deadline.

methods and techniques for the earth observation

John Dudovskiy. Main menu Skip to primary content. Skip to secondary content. Join Our Newsletter.Springer Book Archives: eBooks only 8. Global Change is increasingly considered a critical topic in environmental research. Remote sensing methods provide a relevant tool to monitor global variables, since they offer a systematic coverage of the Earth Surface, at different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions.

The data provided by Earth Observation Satellites are being operationally used for monitoring atmospheric conditions, ice sheets and glaciar movements, crop dynamism and land use changes, deforestation and desertification processes, as well as water conditions. The book includes an analysis of the leading missions in global Earth observation, and then reviews the main fields in which remote sensing methods are providing vital data for global change studies.

Audience: Academic libraries, practitioners, professionals, scientists, researchers, lecturers, tutors, graduates, undergraduates. The topical areas covered and the technical scope are suitable for an interdisciplinary audience of environmental scientists, though I recommend this book to anyone interested in global change from a regional or ecosystem perspective. Only valid for books with an ebook version.

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Free Preview. Review of contributions of Earth Observation Data to monitoring Global Change in a wide range of disciplines Covers hyperspectral sensors, optical, radar, lidar, low and high-resolution data and more Show all benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover.

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Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Global Change is increasingly considered a critical topic in environmental research. Show all. Kimball, EOS, Vol. Ozone in the Atmosphere Pages Calle, Abel et al.Earth observation is the gathering of information about the physical, chemical, and biological systems of the planet via remote-sensing technologies, supplemented by [Earth]-surveying techniques, which encompasses the collection, analysis, and presentation of data. In recent years, [ when?

It has also become more important due to the dramatic impact that modern human civilization is having on the world and the need to minimize negative effects e. The term Earth observation is used in two ways, leading to confusion. In Europe, in particular, it has often been used to refer to satellite-based remote sensing, but the term is also used to refer to any form of observations of the Earth system, including in situ and airborne observations, for example. The Group on Earth Observations, which has over member countries and over participating organizations, uses EO in this broader sense.

Different Types Of Observation Methods

To add to the confusion, in the US, for example, the term remote sensing is often used to refer to satellite-based remote sensing, but sometimes used more broadly for observations using any form of remote sensing technology, including airborne sensors and even ground-based sensors such as cameras. Perhaps the least ambiguous term to use for satellite-based sensors is satellite remote sensingor SRS, an acronym which is gradually starting to appear in the literature.

Just as Earth observations consist of a wide variety of possible elements, they can be applied to a wide variety of possible uses. Some of the specific applications of Earth observations are:. The quality and quantity of Earth observations continue to mount rapidly. In addition to the ongoing launch of new remote-sensing satellites, increasingly sophisticated in situ instruments located on the ground, on balloons and airplanes, and in rivers, lakes and oceans, are generating increasingly comprehensive, nearly real-time observations.

The first photo of Earth from space, taken with a motion picture camera aboard the V-2 No. The first image taken by a human of the whole Earth, probably photographed by William Anders of Apollo 8 The Blue Marble widely used Earth picture taken during Apollo 17 Pale Blue Dot seen from about 6 billion kilometers 3.

An example of Earth observing sensors are the sensors in the Landsat program. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Earth observations may include: numerical measurements taken by a thermometerwind gaugeocean buoyaltimeter or seismometer photos and radar or sonar images taken from ground or ocean-based instruments photos and radar images taken from remote-sensing satellites decision-support tools based on processed information, such as maps and models Just as Earth observations consist of a wide variety of possible elements, they can be applied to a wide variety of possible uses.

Some of the specific applications of Earth observations are: forecasting weather tracking biodiversity and wildlife trends measuring land-use change such as deforestation monitoring and responding to natural disasters [2]including fires, floodsearthquakeslandslides, land subsidence and tsunamis [3] managing natural resourcessuch as energyfreshwater and agriculture addressing emerging diseases and other health risks predicting, adapting to and mitigating climate change The quality and quantity of Earth observations continue to mount rapidly.

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